Glossary 

Acquittal: A release, absolution, or discharge of an obligation or liability. In Criminal law the finding of not guilty. 
 
Adverse Possession: Method of acquiring real property under certain conditions by possession for a statutory period. 
 
Affidavit: A voluntary, written, or printed declaration of facts, confirmed by Oath of the party making it before a person of authority to administer the Oath. 
 
Bequeath: To give a gift to someone through a Will. 
 
Contributory Negligence: The rule of law under which an act or omission of a Plaintiff is a contributing cause of injury and a bar to recovery. 
 
Conveyance: Instrument transferring title of land from one person or group of persons to another. 
 
Damages: Money awarded by a court to a person injured by the unlawful act or negligence of another person. 
 
Decree: An Order of the Court. A final Decree is one that fully and finally disposes of the Litigation. 
 
Equity: Justice administered according to fairness, the spirit or habit of fairness in dealing with other persons. 
 
Exhibit: A document or other item introduced as evidence during a Trial or Hearing. 
 
Joint and Several Liability: A legal doctrine that makes each of the parties who are responsible for an injury, liable for all the damages awarded in a lawsuit if the other parties responsible cannot pay. 
 
Joint Tenancy: A form of legal co-ownership of property (also known as survivorship). At the death of one co-owner, the surviving co-owner becomes the sole owner of the property. 
 
Liable: Legally responsible 
 
Litigation: A lawsuit; a legal action, including all proceedings therein. 
 
Malpractice: Any professional misconduct. 
 
Motion: An application made to a Court or Judge which requests a Ruling or Order in favour of the Applicant. 
 
Negligence: Failure to use care which a reasonable and prudent person would use under similar circumstances. 
 
Next Friend: One acting or sitting without formal appointment as a Guardian for the benefit of an Infant, a person of unsound mind not judicially declared incompetent or other person under some disability. 
 
Oath: A solemn pledge made under a sense of responsibility in attestation of the truth of a statement made. 
 
Plaintiff: A person who brings an action; the party who complains or sues in a Civil Action. 
 
Precedent: Laws established by previous cases which must be followed in cases involving identical circumstances. 
 
Prima Facie Case: A case that is sufficient and had the minimum amount of evidence necessary to allow it to continue in the judicial process. 
 
Probate: Court Proceedings by which a Will is proved valid or invalid; term used to mean all Proceedings pertaining to the Administration of Estates such as the process by which the assets are gathered; applied to pay debts, taxes, and expenses of Administration; and are distributed to those designated as beneficiaries in the will. Conducted in States Courts. 
 
Restatement: A publication which tells us what the law is in a particular field, as compiled from Statutes and Decisions. 
 
Specific Performance: A remedy requiring a person who has breached a Contract to perform specifically what he or she has agreed to do. Specific Performance is ordered when damages would be inadequate compensation. 
 
Statute: Legislative enactment; it may be a single act of a legislature or a body of acts which are collected and arranged for a session of a legislature. 
 
Statute of Limitations: A Statute which limits the right of a Plaintiff to file an Action unless it is done within a specified time period after the occurrence which gives rise to the right to sue. 
 
Testator: The person who makes a Will. 
 
Tort: A private or civil wrong or injury for which the Court provides a remedy through an Action for Damages. 
 
Tenancy in common: The default form of concurrent estate, in which each owner, referred to as a tenant in common is regarded by the law as each owning separate and distinct shares which may differ in size. Tenants in common have no right of survivorship, meaning that if one owner dies, that owner's interest in the property will pass by inheritance to that owner's devisees or heirs, either by will, or by intestate succession. 
 
Trust: A legal device used to manage real or personal property, established by one person (grant or settler) for the benefit of another (beneficiary) 
 
Trustee: The person or institution that manages the property put in trust. 
 
Waiver: Intentionally given up a right. 
 
Will: A Legal Declaration that disposes of a person’s property when that person dies. 
 
 
 
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